Stax Engineering

Climate Change Solutions

STAX is the only practical approach that can significantly slow advance of climate change through the capture and storage of billions of tons of CO2 - enough to meet about 10% of the Paris Agreement 2°C goal.

The Problem

Trillions of dollars of Long-Life Polluting Assets (LLPA's) will be with us for many decades. These assets cannot be retrofitted or replaced cost-effectively. Realistically, these assets will be with us for decades because companies can’t discard huge capital investments before the end of their useful life. These LLPA's are projected to consume over 75% of our remaining CO2 budget. These capital investments include oceangoing vessels, electric generators, industrial facilities, and power plants. Cleaner and greener sources of power are not even close to being implemented fast enough.

We cannot wait to act. If global temperatures increase just a couple of degrees disastrous global feedback mechanisms will kick in. For example, melting permafrost will cause more climate change than all human activity since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Some technologies are being implemented to absorb CO2 from the air. However, it is much more efficient to prevent the release of CO2 in the first place when it is 20,000% more concentrated. Fortunately, a proven solution already exists that can prevent billions of tons of CO2 from being released into the atmosphere.

The Solution

STAX provides proven and scalable systems that attach to existing combustion sources to remove nearly 100% of toxic particulate matter (PM), smog (NOx), and the cause of acid rain (SO2) while also the capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) that is responsible for climate change. STAX’s proven CO2capture technology is only about 25% the cost of similar currently-offered technologies. This profitable approach drives rapid and widespread implementation now, without waiting for regulation or some form of financial incentive which could otherwise take many years.

STAX captures CO2 from power plants, refineries, cement plants, and other industrial facilities. The resulting valuable CO2 product is in high demand and develops revenue through both 1) “carbontech” (converting carbon waste to a commodity) and 2) through utility-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS). Newly-adopted federal tax credits and carbon credits generate even more revenue that drives rapid and immediate adoption of the technology. STAX is the only practical approach that can significantly slow advance of climate change through the capture and storage of billions of tons of CO2 - enough to meet about 10% of the Paris Agreement 2°C goal.

CO2tainer™

Distributed CO2 Capture and Use

STAX’s first climate change solution is industrial-scale “carbontech” carbon capture through the “CO2tainer” brand (pronounced “Co-tainer”). CO2tainers are shipping container-sized modular units that are placed at industrial CO2 sources near CO2 customers. This flexible approach to the nascent carbontech market allows STAX to optimize the logistics of supply, demand, and transportation. Factory-built CO2tainers can be rapidly deployed to meet demand. Each CO2tainer can handle about 3 Megawatts (MW) of industrial exhaust, and CO2tainers can be stacked to scale to any size facility. The captured CO2 is converted to either a fertilizer or a high-purity CO2 gas that can be sequestered into new products that are being developed.

STAXCO2

Utility-Scale Carbon Capture and Storage

STAXCO2™ is STAX's utility-scale CO2 capture technology that provides a realistic and economically-viable approach that can be sufficiently scaled to achieve a massive change in a short period of time using a STAGED APPROACH as follows:

STAGE 1: Coal-fired power plants are firmly set to produce 300 GT of the remaining ~400 GT CO2 budget to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees. STAX's modular approach can be applied to any power plant quickly by dramatically reducing the amount of engineering and planning. STAX's proven technology is only 13% of the capital cost and 27% of the operating cost of the incumbent technology. This low cost means this solution does not have the typical economic barriers that slow or prevent adoption. Thus, dozens of power plants could be retrofitted within a decade.

STAGE 2: Many coal-fired power plants are transitioning to natural gas for economic reasons. New gas-fired plants are also being built. Even though gas-fired plants emit only half the carbon of coal plants, these emissions are still massive. STAX's low net cost allows economical treatment of gas plants as well. Also, as coal plants are converted to natural gas, the "paid-for" STAX units may continue to operate to further capture CO2 from the exhaust from the gas-fired boilers thereby giving a second life to these capital assets. Furthermore, as the cost of carbon increases, the economics for gas plants will become even more attractive.

STAGE 3: As bio-energy becomes feasible in the coming decades, then STAX modules can be re-deployed to collect CO2 from bio-energy plants. This means that massive amounts of carbon will be captured from the atmosphere, converted to bio-fuel, whereby the bio-fuel is consumed in power plants, and resulting CO2 is captured. This approach is known as Bio-energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS). The net effect is carbon-negative power generation. Using BECCS we can ultimately reverse global warming by capturing carbon from the atmosphere to make up for today's inaction and to "dial in" the optimum atmospheric CO2 concentration.

Initially, the only known way to permanently sequester billions of tons of CO2 is to pump it deep underground. At today's carbon prices, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is the only economically-driven method that uses existing infrastructure to use CO2 to recover trapped oil from spent oil fields. Although EOR seems counter-productive because it results in the production of even more fossil fuel, this is more than offset because up to 2.5 times the CO2 is sequestered net overall. Since the STAX method is about 75% less expensive than the existing alternative, a powerful economic engine already exists which will lead to rapid deployment. This method is not constrained by waiting for rising carbon prices or government action which could take decades - which is key to making a significant difference in climate change quickly in the next few years, when it matters most. Currently, EOR remains the world’s most-effective path to sequester globally-significant amounts of CO2 as quickly as possible. The infrastructure needed to transport the CO2 gas already exists because an extensive pipeline system already exists to transport CO2 from natural sources to the oil fields. However, these natural sources are rapidly being depleted. Thus, with EOR, we can get a jump on climate change immediately while all the other approaches may take many decades to implement. Once carbon prices rise sufficiently to drive dedicated underground storage, then we can transition to this preferred approach.

Using the modular techniques developed by STAX Engineering, STAX is ready within the next decade to deploy its technology on the estimated 10% of power plants that are already located near pipelines across the country. Ultimately, this proven approach could be used to solve up to about 30% of the climate change problem.